Murat Ulukus and Aydin Arici Pages 217 - 227 ( 11 )
Recurrent pregnancy loss is classically described as three or more consecutive miscarriages occuring before the 20th weeks of gestation. The overall incidence of spontaneous miscarriage varies between 15% and 25%, whereas recurrent miscarriage affects around 1% of fertile couples. First trimester losses consist of 75% of recurrent miscarriages and second trimester losses the remaining 25%. Genetic, anatomical, endocrine, immune, infective and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy losses. However, the majority of recurrent miscarriage cases are idiopathic and no identifiable cause is found. In this review we aim to summarize the identifiable causes of recurrent pregnancy losses and discuss the current treatment modalities.
cervical incompetence, POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYDROME, Luteal phase defect, Antiphospholipid syndrome, NK cells
Section of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven,CT 06520-8063, USA.