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High-risk Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcome: An Observational Study

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Naina Kumar* and Ashu Yadav   Pages 318 - 326 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: High-risk pregnancies are associated with adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes. Aim: To know the overall perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies.

Methods: Present observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of a rural tertiary center of Northern India over eight months (February-October 2018) on 3,085 antenatal women at gestation ≥ 28 weeks with 1,309 high-risk cases and 1,776 normal pregnancy cases after Institutional ethical committee approval and informed written consent from the participants. The demographic features including age, gravidity, parity, gestation, high-risk factors, the onset of labor, mode of delivery of all the selected antenatal women at gestation ≥ 28 weeks were recorded on a preformed datasheet by trained staff. All the participants were observed till delivery and the perinatal outcome was recorded. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22.0 version and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Of total 1,309 high-risk pregnancies, 365(27.9%) were preterm, 936(71.5%) term and eight (0.6%) post-term cases. Of 1,309 neonates delivered, 66(5.04%) were intra-uterine dead fetuses, 1,243 live fetuses, of which nine (0.7%) had intrapartum still-birth, 278(22.4%) required neonatal intensive care unit admission, 70(5.6%) intubated, 238(19.1%) needed oxygen support, 343(27.6%) developed complications, while 11(0.9%) had early neonatal deaths. The average birth weight of neonates delivered to high-risk mothers was 2.47±0.571 Kg with 271(20.7%) neonates having low birth weight (<2.5 Kg). Of all high-risk factor Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, Antepartum hemorrhage, Anemia, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Intra-uterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios was significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes (p<0.05). High-risk pregnancy was associated with preterm births, low birth weight, NICU admission, intubation, complications, neonatal deaths, still-births as compared to normal pregnancy. Most common neonatal complication was the low birth weight (20.7%) followed by Respiratory distress syndrome (17.6%), prematurity (13.1%).

Conclusion: High-risk pregnancy was associated with an adverse overall perinatal outcome with increased risk of perinatal morbidities and mortalities.

Keywords:

Birth weight, gestation, high-risk pregnancy, neonate, perinatal, respiratory distress syndrome.

Affiliation:

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri-522503, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, deemed to be University, Mullana-133207, Ambala, Haryana

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