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Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: The Causative Agents, Clinical Signs and Susceptibility to Fluconazole in Gonabad City, Northeast Iran

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 1 ]


Mohammad Hassan Minooeianhaghighi, Marziyeh Sehatpour, Hossein Zarrinfar* and Tanuka Sen   Pages 46 - 51 ( 6 )


Background: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is the second most common cause of genital tract infection in females. Excessive use of fluconazole and other azoles is likely to cause the emergence of the resistant species of Candida.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC and the antifungal effect of fluconazole against them.

Methods: In this study, 152 patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were evaluated for the RVVC form. The Candida isolates were purified using CHROMagar Candida and identified based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates against fluconazole was determined according to document M27-A3.

Results: Out of 152 patients, 20 cases (13.2%) were identified as recurrent form. The frequencies of the Candida species among the patients with RVVC were C. albicans (n = 16, 80%), C. parapsilosis (n = 3, 15%) and C. tropicalis (n = 1, 5%). The most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge (60%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of fluconazole against Candida isolates were 32 µg/mL and 64 µg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: C. albicans was the dominant cause of RVVC. The Candida isolates showed relatively high resistance to fluconazole in vitro. Vaginal discharge was the most common clinical sign among patients with RVVC.


Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, gonabad, predisposing factors, fluconazole, PCR-RFLP.


Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Department of Microbiology, Damghan Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Allergy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Division of Biomedical Science and Biochemistry, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, ACT, Canberra

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