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Comparative Studies on Hormonal Changes and Metabolic Syndrome in Perimenopausal and Premenopausal Igbo Women in Enugu Metropolis Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Chinwe Ifeoma Ikegwuonu, Uchendu Kingsley Ikenna*, Okonkwo Innocent Nwabueze, Mba Chika Betina, Maduka Ignatius Chukwudi and Onyenekwe Charles Chinedum   Pages 284 - 294 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background and Objective: Few studies have focused on the epidemiology of perimenopausal syndrome, and its prevalence in African women is concerningly high. This study investigated selected biochemical parameters, hormonal changes, and possible metabolic syndrome (MetS) in perimenopausal and premenopausal women among Igbo women in Enugu, Southeast of Nigeria.

Methods: This study was conducted between March 2018 and November 2018. A total of 200 apparently healthy women, comprising 120 perimenopausal women (mean age 50 years) and 80 premenopausal women (mean age 35 years), living in Enugu, were randomly recruited for this study. Anthropometric indices (blood pressure, waist circumference, weight, and height) of these women were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected and used for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and lipid profile using standard methods. MetS in the perimenopausal and premenopausal women was observed using three different criteria: the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel 111 (NCEP-ATP 111), the World Health Organization (WHO), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Student’s t-test and Chi-square were used to compare continuous and categorical variables.

Results: There were significantly (p<0.05) higher values of blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), FPG, waist circumference, LH, FSH, total cholesterol, and LDL-C, but significantly (p<0.05) lower values of estradiol in perimenopausal women as compared to premenopausal women. The incidence of MetS was higher in perimenopausal women as compared to premenopausal women in all the three criteria studied.

Interpretation and Conclusion: Perimenopausal women have a higher risk for the development of metabolic syndrome-associated diseases than premenopausal women.

Keywords:

Perimenopause, premenopause, biochemical changes, metabolic syndrome, Igbo women, Nigeria.

Affiliation:

Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Department of Haematology and Immunology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Department of Human Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State

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